Friday, April 23, 2010

Emergency Immigration News Update - 4/23/2010

1. U.S.’s Toughest Immigration Law Is Signed in Arizona: Gov. Jan Brewer of Arizona signed the toughest illegal immigration bill in the country into law today, aimed at identifying, prosecuting and deporting illegal immigrants. The governor’s move unleashed immediate protests and reignited the divisive battle over immigration reform nationally...The law, which opponents and critics alike said was the broadest and strictest immigration measure in the country in generations, would make the failure to carry immigration documents a crime. It would also give the police broad power to detain anyone suspected of being in the country illegally. Opponents have decried it as an open invitation for harassment and discrimination against Hispanics regardless of their citizenship status.

The bill provoked a new burst of political ugliness with its sponsor, Arizona state Senator Russell Pearce, railing against Los Angeles Cardinal Roger Mahony, who has forcefully opposed the legislation. Speaking on the Michael Smerconish nationally syndicated radio talk show, Senator Pearce said that the Cardinal is "the last guy that ought to speaking out. This guy has a history of protecting and moving predators around in order to avoid detection by the law. He has no room to talk." Nasty!

2. Obama presses for immigration reform: President Barack Obama, urging Congress today to press forward on "comprehensive immigration reform," warned that the absence of federal action will only encourage "misguided efforts" such as those in Arizona..."Surely we can all agree that when 11 million people are living here illegally, that's unacceptable," Obama said today at a naturalization ceremony for 24 members of the Armed Forces on the South Lawn of the White House. "The American people deserve a solution."

XXX Congreso de Teología: Jesús de Nazareth

Information on this year's congress -- program, cost, etc...-- is also available here: http://www.congresodeteologia.info/?XXX-CONGRESO.

Asociación de Teólogos y Teólogas Juan XXIII

El próximo mes de septiembre se celebrará, un año más, el Congreso de Teología convocado por la Asociación de Teólogos y Teólogas Juan XXIII. Esta vez, además, el Congreso está de aniversario ya que celebra su trigésima edición. A continuación os adelantamos algunos detalles de su programa que, en esta ocasión está dedicado a Jesús de Nazareth.

Fechas/Date: 9 al 12 de septiembre de 2010 / September 9-12, 2010

Lugar/Place: Comisiones Obreras Madrid-Región, c/ Lope de Vega 40, Madrid, Spain (Metro: Banco de España y Atocha; Autobuses: 10-14-27-34 y 45)



PONENTES / SPEAKERS

Federico Pastor
Federico Mayor Zaragoza
Rafael Aguirre (interview)
Clarisse Tchala Kabanga
Mariola López
José Ignacio González Faus (brief biography / recent interview)
Jon Sobrino
Nilda Arrobo

PROGRAMA/PROGRAM

Jueves / Thursday

17,00-19,00 h.: Inscripciones
19,00-19,15: Saludo de bienvenida y presentación del Congreso. Federico Pastor. Presidente de la Asociación de Teólogos y Teólogas Juan XXIII
19,15-20,45 h.: Ponencia 1ª: Actitudes ante la figura de Jesús de Nazaret en la sociedad española. Federico Mayor Zaragoza. Ex Secretario General de la NESCO y Presidente de Cultura de Paz

Viernes/Friday

10,00-11,30 h: Comunicaciones: Testigos de Jesús de Nazaret
- Hermanitas de Jesús
- Fundación Vicente Ferrer, Esther Pina Trejo
- Movimiento Apostólico Seglar, Fernando Bermúdez López
12,00-13,30 h.: 1a Mesa redonda: La experiencia de Jesús de Nazaret en las Iglesias Cristianas
- Iglesia Evangélica, Félix González Moreno
- Iglesia Ortodoxa, Teófilo Moldován
- Iglesia Católica, Mari Patxi Ayerra
17,00-18,30 h.: 2a Mesa redonda: Los jóvenes ante Jesús de Nazaret
- Grupos Bíblicos Universitarios, Rúben Le More
- JOC, Saúl Pérez Martínez
- Colegio Mayor Chaminade, Leire Calvillo
19,00-20,30 h: Ponencia 2: La búsqueda del Jesús histórico. Rafael Aguirre. Profesor de Sagrada Escritura. Universidad de Deusto. Bilbao.

Sábado/Saturday

10,00-11,30 h.: Ponencia 3: Jesús de Nazaret en África: liberación y diálogo interreligioso. Clarisse Tchala Kabanga. Teóloga. República de Congo
12,00-13,30 h.: Ponencia 4ª: Jesús y las mujeres. Mariola López. Teóloga. Alicante
17,00-18,30 h.: Ponencia 5ª: El seguimiento de Jesús, hoy. José Ignacio González Faus. Profesor emérito de Teología. Facultad de Teología de Cataluña
19,00-20,00 h.: Testimonios Proféticos: Monseñor Proaño y Monseñor Romero
- Nidia Arrobo, Fundación Pueblo Indio (Ecuador)
- Jon Sobrino, Profesor de Teología. UCA. San Salvador (El Salvador)
20,00-21,00 h.: Festival musical - Luis Guitarra y Una + Una

Domingo/Sunday

10,30-11,30h.: Ponencia 6ª: Jesús de Nazaret en América Latina: liberación y solidaridad. Jon Sobrino. Profesor de Teología. UCA. San Salvador (El Salvador)
12,00 h.: Eucaristía y colecta solidaria

DETALLES ADMINISTRATIVOS / CONGRESS LOGISTICS

Secretaría/Secretariat:
Movimiento Apostólico Seglar
General Ramírez de Madrid, 29
28020 Madrid
Tel: 679-288-4080

Matrícula/Fees
Todo el Congreso y actas incluidas/Whole Congress plus proceedings: 34 euros
Todo el Congreso/Whole Congress: 25 euros
Sábado y Domingo y actas incluidas/Saturday and Sunday only plus proceedings: 29 euros
Sábado y Domingo/Saturday and Sunday only: 20 euros

Forma de Pago/How to Pay
En metálico, durante el Congreso / Cash only, at the Congress.

The Old Boys Network Continues to Crumble

In my post yesterday about the church's sexual abuse scandals, after the litany of bishops who have resigned, I wrote: "There will be more." I wrote knowing that this was true, but hoping it wasn't. It is.

Today we have learned of another resignation. "When I was still a simple priest, and for a while when I began as a bishop, I sexually abused a boy in my close entourage," the bishop of Bruges, Roger Vangheluwe, said in a statement issued at a news conference in Brussels. The Pope has accepted Vangheluwe's resignation.

And I will say it again: "There will be more."

The Earth: subject of dignity and rights

Leonardo Boff's weekly columns are available in Spanish from Servicios Koinonia. Some of his older columns are available in English at LeonardoBoff.com.

by Leonardo Boff (English translation by Rebel Girl)
4/23/2010

A central theme of the Peoples' Summit on Climate Change, held in Cochabamba from April 19th to 23rd, convened by the President of Bolivia, Evo Morales, was the subjectivity of the Earth, its dignity and its rights. The issue is relatively new, since up until now dignity and rights had been reserved for human beings alone, bearers of conscience and intelligence. An anthropocentric view still prevails as if we were the only bearers of dignity. We forget that we are part of a larger whole. As renowned cosmologists have said, if the spirit is in us, it is a sign that it was formerly in the universe of which we are fruit and a part.

A tradition that dates back to ancestral origins always viewed the Earth as the Great Mother who creates us and gives us everything we need to live. Earth and life sciences came to confirm this view, through the scientific method. The Earth is a living superorganism, Gaia, which regulates itself to be always suitable to sustain life on the planet. The biosphere itself is a biological product, as it originates from the synergy of living organisms with all other elements of the Earth and the cosmos. They created the suitable habitat for life, the biosphere. Therefore, not only is there life on Earth, the Earth itself is alive and, as such, has intrinsic value and should be respected and cared for like all living things. This is one of the entitlements of its dignity and the real basis of its right to exist and be respected like other beings.

The astronauts left us this legacy: a view from outside the Earth, Earth and Humanity forming a single entity; they can not be separated. Earth is a moment in the evolution of the cosmos, life is a moment in the evolution of the Earth, and human life, a later stage of evolution of life. So, rightly, we can say that the human being is when Earth began to be aware, to feel, think and love. We are the conscious and intelligent part of Earth.

If human beings possess dignity and rights, as is the consensus among people, and if Earth and human beings are an indivisible unity, then we can say that Earth partakes of the dignity and rights of human beings.

Therefore it can not undergo systematic aggression, exploitation and depredation by a project of civilization that only sees it as something mindless, and therefore treats it without any respect, denying it autonomous and intrinsic value, as a function of the accumulation of material goods. It is an affront to its dignity and a violation of its right to remain whole, clean and capable of reproduction and regeneration. So, there is discussion at the UN about a plan for an Earth Tribunal to punish anyone who violates its dignity, deforests it or contaminates its oceans, or destroys its ecosystems, vital for the maintenance of climate and life.

Finally, there is one last argument that is derived from a quantum vision of reality. It notes, following Einstein, Bohr and Heisenberg, that everything, fundamentally, is energy in various degrees of density. Matter itself is highly interactive energy. Matter, from hadrons and topquarks on, doesn't just have mass and energy. All beings are bearers of information. The set of relationships of all with all makes them change and keep the information about this relationship. Each being is related to others in its own way such that it can be said that levels of subjectivity and history arise. The Earth in its long history of more than four billion years keeps this ancestral memory of its evolutionary trajectory. It has subjectivity and history. Of course it is different from human subjectivity and history, but the difference is not of principle (all are connected) but of degree (each has it in its own way).

It is one more reason to see, with data from the most advanced cosmological science, that Earth possesses dignity and is therefore a bearer of rights. For our part, we have a duty to care for it, love it, and keep it healthy so that it will continue to generate us and offer us the goods and services it provides.

Now the bio-civilization era begins, in which Earth and humanity, having dignity and rights, recognize their mutual belonging, their common origin and destiny.

Thursday, April 22, 2010

The Old Boys Network Starts to Fall Apart

An interesting phenomenon is emerging in the Church sex abuse scandal: the Vatican is no longer willing to conceal bishops and priests who are involved in sex abuse scandals and members of the Catholic hierarchy are no longer willing to take the rap to protect the Holy See. The old boys network is breaking down.

Abandoning its past practice of encouraging bishops to deal with pedophiles privately, the Vatican has posted the CDF guidelines for dealing with these situations and they state upfront and unambiguously that: "Civil law concerning reporting of crimes to the appropriate authorities should always be followed." A benefit of having these guidelines posted online is that we can now hold our hierarchs to them.

On Wednesday, the Pope spoke about his meeting with abuse victims in Malta and promised "church action" to solve the problem. The pontiff's earlier call for the Church to repent was taken up by the bishops of England and Wales who issued a statement that read in part: "We express our heartfelt apology and deep sorrow to those who have suffered abuse, those who have felt ignored, disbelieved or betrayed. We ask their pardon, and the pardon of God for these terrible deeds done in our midst. There can be no excuses."

Five Irish bishops have now offered their resignations in light of that country's abuse scandals -- Bishop James Moriarty of Kildare and Leighlin, Bishop Donal Murray of Limerick, Bishop John Magee of Coyne, and two auxiliary bishops of Dublin, Eamonn Walsh and Ray Field. And the bishop of Augsburg, Germany, Walter Mixa, has also written a letter to the pope offering to resign after being accused of using violence against children in his care, and of misusing funds donated to a local orphanage. Earlier this month the Norwegian Catholic Church removed Bishop Georg Mueller, who has admitted molesting a boy in the early 90s. There will be more.

And then there's Cardinal Dario Castrillon Hoyos, who has been getting a lot of negative press lately as a result of a letter he wrote in 2001 to French Bishop Pierre Pican and published in Golias in which he praised Pican for not denouncing Fr. René Bissey to the police. Bissey was later sentenced to 18 years in jail for sexually abusing 11 boys between 1989 and 1996. "I congratulate you on not having reported a priest to the civil authorities," Castrillon Hoyos wrote to Pican on Sept. 8, 2001. "You have done well, and I rejoice at having an associate in the episcopate who, in the eyes of history and of all the others bishops of the world, will have chosen prison rather than speaking out against his priest-son." Pican was given a three month suspended sentence for "failure to report a sex crime against a minor younger than 15 years old."

Pican alleged -- and Cardinal Castrillon continues to insist -- that he knew of the priest's crimes as a result of confession. But an article in The Telegraph about the bishop's trial belies that version:

...The key witness yesterday was Father Michel Morcel, who was Mgr Pican's right-hand man in the diocese. It was to Fr Morcel that a mother of one of Bissey's victims complained in the winter of 1996. At the time, she did not wish to press charges, though she was keen to alert the church to prevent further abuse. "I reported these acts of paedophilia as they were explained to me," said Fr Morel in a courtroom in Caen yesterday. "I told the bishop everything I knew about this case, all the information that I was able to obtain."

In January 1997 Mgr Pican met Bissey and advised him to get psychiatric treatment. But Mgr Pican did not instruct Bissey, who he claims was "on the verge of suicide", to give himself up to police. Indeed, Mgr Pican even placed Bissey in a new parish in September 1998.

His defence rests largely upon legal precedent set in 1891 when a French court decided that disclosures made to a priest, even outside the confessional, were still confidential. The prosecution alleges that, because the case came to light through the intervention of a victim's mother and not through Bissey's confessions, the bishop was obliged to report the abuse...
Faced with the media brouhaha, Vatican spokesperson Fr. Federico Lombardi said that the letter demonstrates why the handling of sex abuse cases was taken out of the hands of the Congregation for the Clergy, headed at that time by Cardinal Castrillon, and put under the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, then headed by Cardinal Ratzinger, i.e. Pope Benedict XVI.

In a speech this week at the Catholic University of Murcia, Cardinal Castrillon asserted that he showed the letter to Pope John Paul II who approved it. He said the late Pope also authorized him to share the letter with other bishops. And in another radio interview today in Bogota, the Cardinal implicated then Cardinal Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI) saying that the letter was the product of a high-level meeting at which Ratzinger was present. "It was a meeting of cardinals. Therefore the current pope (Benedict XVI), who at that time was a cardinal, was present. The pope (John Paul II) was never at those meetings. However the Holy Father was indeed present when we spoke about this matter in the council, and the cardinals ruled."

I'd have some sympathy for Cardinal Castrillon except for the fact that in the same interview he persists in believing he did the right thing. He compared a bishop turning a pedophile priest over to law enforcement to a father turning in a son: "The law in nations with a well-developed judiciary does not force anyone to testify against a child, a father, against other people close to the suspect...Why would they ask that of the church? That's the injustice. It's not about defending a pedophile, it's about defending the dignity and the human rights of a person, even the worst of criminals." Baloney. Even fathers turn their children over to authorities sometimes when it is for their own good or the good of society. It's called "tough love", Your Excellency.

Pope Benedict XVI vs. the Theologians

The criticisms of Pope Benedict XVI from certain segments of the theological community are becoming hard to ignore. While many would look at the names and say "well, what would you expect?", it is worth pointing out that all of these men in the past enjoyed a respectful, though distant, relationship with the pontiff. Not any more. They are disgusted with how the Church has been handling the pedophilia scandals and want a thorough purge -- starting at the top.

Leading the pack is Dr. Hans Küng who drafted an open letter to all Catholic bishops excoriating the Pope's record on multiple fronts and encouraging the bishops to call for reform and re-take responsibility for the Church. Küng starts by reminding the bishops that he and the Pope were the youngest theologians at the Second Vatican Council and that now they are the only ones still fully active. But, Küng argues, the Pope missed "the opportunity to make the spirit of the Second Vatican Council the compass for the whole Catholic Church, including the Vatican itself, and thus to promote the needed reforms in the church...Time and again, this pope has added qualifications to the conciliar texts and interpreted them against the spirit of the council fathers. Time and again, he has taken an express stand against the Ecumenical Council, which according to canon law represents the highest authority in the Catholic Church..." "Pope Benedict XVI seems to be increasingly cut off from the vast majority of church members who pay less and less heed to Rome and, at best, identify themselves only with their local parish and bishop." The letter is available in Spanish here.

Another prominent Catholic theologian, Leonardo Boff, follows. In an interview in German with Süddeutsche Zeitung, Boff offers a harsh assessment of Pope Benedict XVI's rule: "The five years of his pontificate have been characterized by conflict: with Muslims, with Jews, with the non-Catholic faiths that he has characterized as not being true churches, with the Anglican church, Lefebvre's followers, women and homosexuals." Boff said he admires virtually nothing in the pontiff, whom he again characterized as conservative and fearful. He reiterated that the Pope has never really understood liberation theology and reminded his interviewer that during the Pope's tenure as head of the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith, he condemned more than 100 theologians.

When asked at the end of the interview what he would say to the Pope, Boff replied: "I would just say: 'Your Holiness, you are an old man, tired and quite sick. You have served the Church with the best intentions, despite the opposition that you have provoked. The hour has come to prepare for the great encounter with God. Take refuge in a monastery, sing the Gregorian chant that makes you so happy, celebrate your Mass in Latin and pray more for the Earth, which is threatened by global warming, for humanity, which may be wiped out, particularly for the suffering and for the children who are victims of pedophilia in the church and society. And pray that the Creator Spirit may never leave you."

Finally, the Spanish Asociación de Teólogos y Teólogas Juan XXIII has joined in the fray. It is significant because this 30-year old association brings together over 100 of Spain's leading theologians, including people like Federico Pastor, Juan José Tamayo, Alfredo Tamayo Ayestarán, José María Castillo and Máximo García. The association has published a statement on the anniversary of Pope Benedict XVI's pontificate, endorsing Dr. Hans Küng's public letter and adding their own perspective. They take it a step further, calling for the pope's resignation:

Nos parece que el pontificado de Benedicto XVI está agotado y que el papa no tiene la edad ni la mentalidad para responder adecuadamente a los graves y urgentesproblemas que hoy tiene que afrontar la Iglesia católica. Pedimos por ello, con el debido respeto a la persona del papa, que presente la dimisión de su cargo.

"We believe that the papacy of Benedict XVI is exhausted and that the pope is too old and doesn't have the mentality to respond adequately to the serious and urgent problems that the Catholic Church has to deal with now. We therefore, with due respect for the person of the pope, ask that he resign from office."

We need to pay attention because these are leading theologians, most of whom are Catholic, not ignorant outsiders. Their assessments should give us pause.

Tuesday, April 20, 2010

Another Good Choice: Bishop Thomas Wenski to Miami

Orlando bishop and Florida native Thomas Wenski has been appointed to succeed Mons. John Favalora as Archbishop of Miami. While we disagree with this prelate in some political areas -- most notably his willingness to use the Eucharist as a political weapon in his pro-life activities -- he has been very, very supportive of immigrant rights, including the legalization of undocumented people, and has done a lot to build up Hispanic ministry ever since his ordination.

You can find his complete biography on the Diocese of Orlando Web site but here are some salient features for our purposes:

  • Most of Mons. Wenski's early ministry in Miami involved working with immigrant communities: "He served three years as associate pastor of Corpus Christi Church, a mainly Hispanic parish in Miami. In 1979, after briefly ministering in Haiti, he was assigned to the newly established Haitian Apostolate of the Archdiocese. He was associate director and then director of the Pierre Toussaint Haitian Catholic Center in Miami from that time to his appointment as a Bishop in 1997. The Pierre Toussaint Haitian Catholic Center in addition to providing for the pastoral and spiritual needs of the Haitian communities of South Florida also provided numerous social, educational and legal services to newly arrived Haitian immigrants. He also served concurrently as pastor of three Haitian mission parishes in the Archdiocese—Notre-Dame d’Haiti in Miami, Divine Mercy in Fort Lauderdale, and St. Joseph in Pompano Beach." In the process he learned Spanish and Haitian Creole, both of which he speaks more fluently than the Polish of his own immigrant parents.

  • He has been involved in relief efforts for and travel to both Cuba and Haiti -- the countries of origin of many of Miami's immigrants: "In January 1996, the then Father Wenski was appointed the Archdiocese Director of Catholic Charities, one of the largest Catholic social service agencies in the United States. In this capacity he helped forge a collaborative relationship with Caritas Cuba, the social service arm of the Catholic Church in Cuba. Since early 1996 he has traveled to Cuba on many occasions on behalf of the Church. In late 1996, he spearheaded a relief operation that delivered over 150,000 pounds of food to Caritas Cuba for distribution to people left homeless by hurricane Lily. This was the first time that Cubans in Miami participated in a humanitarian relief effort directed to Cuba. In subsequent years, similar relief efforts were also directed to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and the countries of Central America and Colombia."

  • Other relevant posts held by Mons. Wenski include chair of CLINIC (Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.) (1998-2001) and chair of the United States Catholic Conference of Bishops’ Committee on Migration (2001-2004), with which he still works as a consultant.

  • As Bishop of Orlando, Wenski established eight new parishes and missions between 2004 and 2010 including the Centro Católico La Guadalupana Mission in Ocala (Hispanic), Santo Toribio Romo Mission in Mascotte (Hispanic), and St. Philip Phan Van Minh Catholic Church in Orlando (Vietnamese). A couple of the other new churches he established also have Mass in Spanish. He also established El Clarín and Buena Nueva FM, two communication ministries for the Hispanic faithful.

  • In 2005 together with leaders from the United Farm Workers union and other migrant labor activists, Bishop Wenski spoke out in support of the Agricultural Job Opportunity, Benefits and Security Act of 2005 (AgJOBS). The bill, which resulted from several years of negotiations between representatives of farmworkers and growers, would have given undocumented immigrants who currently work in U.S. agriculture the right to apply for temporary legal status and then, through additional labor in agriculture, earn permanent residency.

Today at a press conference announcing his appointment to the Archdiocese of Miami, Mons. Wenski demonstrated his polyglot abilities by delivering his acceptance speech in English, then Spanish and ending with a smidgeon of Creole:



We are grateful for Bishop Wenski's appointment to the Archdiocese of Miami, wish him well, and hope that this signifies our Church's commitment to work even more strongly for comprehensive immigration reform.

MORE INFORMATION:

  • Wikipedia: Thomas Wenski

  • Busy as a bishop: Thomas Wenski deals with earthly issues and heavenly matters in Central Florida, Orlando Sentinel, 8/27/2006

  • Hitting a Wall on Immigration by Mons. Thomas Wenski, Washington Post, 10/20/2008

  • Testimony of Most Reverend Thomas G. Wenski, Bishop of Orlando, Florida
    before the House Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law on Comprehensive Immigration Reform, May 22, 2007


  • Bishop Wenski: Farm Workers Due Justice by Mons. Thomas Wenski, Orlando Sentinel, 2/23/2005

    Photo: Bishop Thomas Wenski presides over the funeral of Archbishop Joseph Serge Miot and vicar Charles Benoit, on Jan. 23, in the courtyard of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Port-au-Prince Haiti.
  • Monday, April 19, 2010

    Immigration News Roundup 4/19/2010

    1. Arizona Legislature Passes Toughest Immigration Bill in the Nation: One week after the Arizona House passed the legislation, the Senate passed it and sent it on to the governor, who is expected to sign it. The bill, SB 1070, would make it a state crime for illegal immigrants to not have an alien registration document. It also would require police to question people about their immigration status if there's reason to suspect they're in the country illegally. Other provisions allow citizen lawsuits against government agencies that hinder enforcement of immigration laws, and make it illegal for people to hire illegal immigrants for day labor or knowingly transport them. This is the type of law that turns good Samaritans into potential criminals, which is why all of the churches joined to fight these kind of provisions forcefully at the federal level. Cardinal Roger Mahony of Los Angeles blasted the bill, calling it "retrogressive, mean-spirited, and useless". The Arizona Catholic Conference has issued an emergency action alert asking Governor Jan Brewer to veto the bill. Unfortunately it is set up electronically so only residents of the state of Arizona can participate. If you know people in that state, contact them now and ask them to send a message ASAP.

    For those who do not have an Arizona address, you cannot e-mail the governor. You can contact her by mail, phone or fax:

    The Honorable Jan Brewer
    Governor of Arizona
    1700 West Washington
    Phoenix, Arizona 85007

    Telephone (602) 542-4331
    Toll Free 1-(800) 253-0883
    Fax (602) 542-1381

    2. Deportation and Children: The current issue of El Tiempo Latino highlights several studies on the impact of deportation of immigrants on children:


    • Caught Between Systems: The Intersection of Immigration and Child Welfare Policies published by the children's advocacy group First Focus "reveals that the over 5 million children in the United States with at least one undocumented parent are at risk of unnecessarily entering the child welfare system when a parent is detained or deported...The report reinforces the need for Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to consider the well-being of children and families not only in work-site raids, as outlined in previous policy, but in all ICE enforcement activities."

    • Paying the Price: The Impact of Immigration Raids on America’s Children, a 2007 report published by National Council of La Raza and the Urban Institute, profiled three communities that experienced large-scale worksite raids by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE): Greeley, Colorado; Grand Island, Nebraska; and New Bedford, Massachusetts. It found that most of the children in those communities suffered significant negative consequences from the separation from their parents such as economic problems, fear, desolation, social stigma and psychological trauma.

    • In February of this year, the Urban Institute put out a follow-up to the La Raza Report. Facing Our Future: Children in the Aftermath of Immigration Enforcement examines the consequences of parental arrest, detention, and deportation on 190 children in 85 families in six locations, providing in-depth details on parent-child separations, economic hardships, and children's well-being. Almost 5.5 million children, almost three-quarters of whom are U.S.-born citizens, live with unauthorized parents. The report notes that Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) has intensified enforcement activities through large-scale worksite arrests, home arrests, and arrests by local law enforcement. It provides recommendations on how to mitigate the harmful effects of immigration enforcement on children.